Saturday, December 19, 2009

Scientific American - Kool-Aid Psychology: Realism versus Optimism

There's much to like in the positive psychology movement, but its rejection of traditional therapeutic work is not one of them. I have had some serious issues with their whole ethos of focusing only on the positive, and I've mentioned that here before.

In this article, Michael Shermer (of The Skeptic) riffs on Barbara Ehrenreich's recent book that "systematically deconstructs—and then demolishes—what little science there is behind the positive-psychology movement and the allegedly salubrious effects of positive thinking." Here is the whole article.

Kool-Aid Psychology: Realism versus Optimism

How optimism trumped realism in the positive-psychology movement

By Michael Shermer

I am, by nature, an optimist. I almost always think things will turn out well, and even when they break I am confident that I can fix them. My optimism, however, has not always served me well. Twice I have been hit by cars while cycling—full-on, through-the-windshield impacts that were entirely the result of my blissful attitude that the street corners I had successfully negotiated hundreds of times before would not suddenly materialize an automobile in my path. Such high-impact, unpredictable and rare events are what author Nassim Nicholas Taleb calls “black swans.” Given enough time, no upward sloping trend line is immune from dramatic collapse.

A bike crash as a black swan is, in fact, an apt metaphor for what the investigative journalist and natural-born skeptic Barbara Ehrenreich believes happened to America as a result of the positive-thinking movement. In her engaging and tightly reasoned book Bright-Sided (Metropolitan Books, 2009), she shows how the positive-psychology movement was born in the halcyon days of the 1990s when the economy was soaring, housing prices were skyrocketing, and positive-thinking gurus were cashing in on the motivation business. Academic psychologists, armed with a veneer of scientific jargon, wanted in on the action.

The shallow bafflegab of such positive-thinking pioneers as Norman Vincent Peale (The Power of Positive Thinking, 1952) and Napoleon Hill (Think and Grow Rich, 1937) or the “prosperity gospel” preachings of such contemporary “pastorpreneurs” as Frederick “Reverend Ike” Eikerenkoetter, Robert H. Schuller and Joel Osteen are predictably data-light and anecdote-heavy. But one expects better of respected experimental psychologists such as Martin E. P. Seligman, who almost single-handedly launched the positive-psychology movement in academia that is, according to the Positive Psychology Center Web page (, “the scientific study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.” Ehrenreich systematically deconstructs—and then demolishes—what little science there is behind the positive-psychology movement and the allegedly salubrious effects of positive thinking. Evidence is thin. Statistical significance levels are narrow. What few robust findings there are often prove to be either nonreplicable or contradicted by later research. And correlations (between, say, happiness and health) are not causations. Seligman and his colleagues drank the positive-thinking Kool-Aid, Ehrenreich shows, but she provides the antidote.

Take Seligman’s “happiness equation” (physics envy lives!): H = S + C + V (Happiness = your Set range + the Circumstances of your life + the factors under your Voluntary control). As Ehrenreich notes, “if you’re going to add these things up you will have to have the same units [of measurement] for H (happy thoughts per day?) as for V, S, and C.” When she confronted Seligman with this problem in an interview, “his face twisted into a scowl, and he told me that I didn’t understand ‘beta weighting’ and should go home and Google it.” She did, “finding that ‘beta weights’ are the coefficients of the ‘predictors’ in a regression equation used to find statistical correlations between variables. But Seligman had presented his formula as an ordinary equation, like E = mc2, not as an oversimplified regression analysis, leaving himself open to literal-minded questions like: How do we know H is a simple sum of the variables, rather than some more complicated relationship, possibly involving ‘second order’ effects such as ... C times V?” We don’t know, thereby rendering the equation nothing more than a slogan gussied up in math.

Isn’t positive thinking better than negative thinking? All other things being equal, sure, but the alternative to being either an optimist or a pessimist is to be a realist. “Human intellectual progress, such as it has been, results from our long struggle to see things ‘as they are,’ or in the most universally comprehensible way, and not as projections of our own emotions,” Ehrenreich concludes. “What we call the Enlightenment and hold on to only tenuously, by our fingernails, is the slow-dawning understanding that the world is unfolding according to its own inner algorithms of cause and effect, probability and chance, without any regard for human feelings.”

Feelings matter, of course, but the first principle of skepticism is not to fool ourselves, and feelings—both positive and negative—too often trump reason. In the end, reality must take precedence over fantasy, regardless of how it makes us feel.


Gabriella Kortsch, Ph.D. said...

Interesting! I have not read the Ehrenreich book you quote, but I would postulate this: what of a realistic (and objective) look at how people say they feel after being shown how to take charge of their inner state of well-being by the very nature of their thoughts and feelings? By choosing to take responsibility for this inner state of well-being, no matter what the outer circumstances (great examples are always Nelson Mandela, Alexandr Solzhenitsyn and Victor Frankl), they gain an inmeasurable state of control over this well-being, and hence over how they live their lives, from that inner perspective.

So I would ask: if that is so, is it not also so, notwithstanding lack of empirically validated statistics, that positive psychology has much more going for it than our erstwhile take on psychology (and in many institutions it is still the bible) with its focus on problems as opposed to positivity?

Cheers, Gabriella from sunny Spain

WH said...

Hi Gabriella,

I haven't read the book yet, either, only the reviews.

I tend to agree with you on this - creating of intrapersonal agency is crucial for most clients to heal. But I am also coming from a trauma background, so I KNOW that for many people like me, simply focusing on the positive only goes so far - we need to heal the old wounds (or "unburden" those young exiled parts in Internal Family Systems speak).

From my own experience, instilling in clients a sense of efficacy in how they respond the their lives is a major part of that healing process, which is why I think we are seeing more mindfulness based practices.


Gabriella Kortsch, Ph.D. said...

Yes, in fact my comments were directed at those individuals whose lives have been affected by early trauma (myself included).

Forgiving those responsible for the trauma, or forgiving the circumstances of the trauma is correlated with the realization that to walk down the road towards one's own inner well-being, one must lose the energetic connection to those emotions that tend to be triggered by the memory of the traumatic event.

Ergo, the need to learn how to forgive and ergo the need to consciously choose to do it.

Realizing this, new choices can be made, from the perspective of awareness (yes ... mindfulness), with the recognition that one's own inner well-being is not only one's right, but also one's choice.