From the NIH, a pretty detailed overview of the role of the microbiome (all of the critters living in our intestines) and its role in nutrition, metabolism, and inflammation (some new theories of depression suggest it begins with inflammation in the gut).
I've had issues with NIH videos in the past, so if it does not work below, you can download it with the links at the bottom of this post, or you can watch it at the NIH site.
The intestinal microbiome has been "rediscovered" in the past few years and its critical relationship to nutrition, inflammation and immunity has been established. This is one of he most exciting and promising areas of biomedical research and has many important implications for pathogenesis and health.
An ecologic community of trillions of microbes Diverse, varies among individuals, fluctuates Influences physiology and disease susceptibility Most microbes are harmless Protects against pathogens, extracts dietary nutrients, controls immune function Disruptions related to obesity, malnutrition, IBD, neurologic disease, cancer ECOLOGIC RESEARCH APPROACH.
WHAT GOES AROUND COMES AROUND...19 C. Elie Metchnikoff relates gut microbial population to health and long life; L Bulgarica “bacillus of long life”; original Probiotic! Interest ceased in antibiotic era…. 1990’s….renewed interest, technical developments, EXPLODING FIELD…… PROBIOTICS ??? Useful; FECAL TRANSPLANTS ???Useful.
- Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Catherine A. Lozupone, Jesse I. Stombaugh, Jeffrey I. Gordon, Janet K. Jansson & Rob Knight. Nature. 2012, 489, 220.
- Compartmentalized and systemic control of tissue immunity by commensals. Yasmine Belkaid & Shruti Naik. Nature Immunology. 2013, 14, 646.
- Compartmentalized Control of Skin Immunity by Resident Commensals. Shruti Naik et al. Science 337, 1115 (2012).
- Commensal Bacteria Control Cancer Response to Therapy by Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment. Noriho Iida et al. Science 342, 967 (2013).
- NOD2, an Intracellular Innate Immune Sensor Involved in Host Defense and Crohn's Disease. Warren Strober and Tomohiro Watanabe. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 September ; 4(5): 484–495.
- Impact of the gut microbiome on mucosal inflammation. Warren Strober. Trends in Immunology. 2013, Vol. 34, Page 423.
Description: The 2014 Demystifying Medicine Series, which is jointly sponsored by FAES and NIH, will begin January 7th and includes the presentation of patients, pathology, diagnosis and therapy in the context of major disease problems and current research. Primarily directed toward Ph.D. students, clinicians and program managers, the course is designed to help bridge the gap between advances in biology and their application to major human diseases. Each session includes clinical and basic science components presented by NIH staff and invitees. All students, fellows and staff are welcome, as well.
For more information go to http://demystifyingmedicine.od.nih.gov/
Yasmin Belkaid, PhD (NIAID) obtained her Ph.D. in 1996 from the Pasteur Institute in France on innate responses to Leishmania infection. Following a postdoctoral fellowship at NIAID on immune regulation during infection, she joined the Children’s Hospital Research Foundation in Cincinnati as an assistant professor. In 2005, she joined the Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases at NIAID and was appointed senior scientist in 2008. She is currently the chief of the mucosal immunology section in the laboratory of Parasitic diseases. Yasmine Belkaid is an international leader in the field of immune regulation. Her work has defined fundamental mechanisms that regulate host immune responses to pathogens at mucosal and skin sites and revealed key roles for commensal microbiota and dietary factors in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis.
Warren Strober, MD (NIAID) is a leader in the study of mucosal antibody responses, oral tolerance, and gastroenterological diseases caused by immunologic abnormalities. His discoveries concerning the mucosal immune system have formed the basis of our knowledge of IgA B cell development and the mechanisms of mucosal inflammation. Dr. Strober is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Distinguished Achievement Award of the American Gastroenterological Association and the PHS Distinguished Achievement Medal. In addition, he has been awarded an Honorary Doctorate from the Humboldt University, Berlin. Dr Strober has provided leadership to the scientific community as chair of the American Board of Allergy and Immunology and as president of the Society for Mucosal Immunity.